How Cultures of Medication are Made: Production of Race, Ethnicity and Class in Pharmaceutical MarketingAward Year: 2013 Investigator: Helena Hansen
Pharmaceuticals constitute the most profitable industry in the U.S., and account for almost half the global market. A fourth of industry earnings are spent on promotions. With this level of investment in marketing, pharmaceutical industries are potentially a major force shaping social and cultural patterns of health care utilization. There is growing evidence that pharmaceutical marketing targets consumer populations by ethnicity, race and social class.
Award Year: 2011 Investigator: Anthony So
Pharmaceutical innovation has been the engine behind an industry, where U.S. companies account for nearly 40% of global pharmaceutical production. Yet R&D productivity has declined, and innovation has faltered over the past decade and a half. During that same period, the estimated cost of bringing a new drug to market has ballooned to $800 million, updated more recently to $1.3 billion.
Award Year: 2009 Investigator: Aaron Kesselheim
How can the engine of pharmaceutical innovation in the United States, sluggish now despite substantial investment, be jump-started again? Whether the right pathway involves increased government support of basic research or a transformation of industry product development and clinical trial work, patent law will play a key role. Aaron S.
A Prescription for a Healthy Childhood: A History of Children and Pharmaceuticals in the United StatesAward Year: 2009 Investigator: Cynthia Connolly
The growing use of pharmaceuticals in children raises complex and troubling policy issues. How can we conduct research on safety and efficacy, ensure patient safety, provide access to promising treatments, and encourage private sector innovation and product development, all the while protecting children? Cynthia A. Connolly, Ph.D., R.N., P.N.P., an associate professor of nursing at the University of Pennsylvania, probes the many dimensions of this dilemma through a historical lens.
Award Year: 2008 Investigator: Richard Scheffler, Stephen Hinshaw
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects over 4 million children in the United States. The disorder inhibits academic achievement and the development of social relationships, life skills, and independence. Yet the causes of ADHD and its diagnosis and treatment remain mired in controversy. Co-PIs Richard M. Scheffler, Ph.D. and Stephen P. Hinshaw, Ph.D. examine clinical and policy issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.
Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: Do Television Pharmaceutical Ads Prompt More Than Just Prescription Requests?Award Year: 2006 Investigator: Dominick Frosch, Jose Pagan
Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, permitted only in the United States and New Zealand, has been shown to influence patients' requests for prescriptions from their doctors and to contribute to increased drug utilization and spending.
Award Year: 2003 Investigator: Daniel Carpenter
As U.S. expenditures on prescription drugs continue to rise and account for a growing share of gross national product, Daniel P. Carpenter, Ph.D. examines a major institution in American health care: the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). His project, Reputation and Regulation: A Study of Pharmaceutical Policy at the FDA, considers the power the FDA exerts and how political, social, and other considerations influence its decisions.